Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics With Application To Solids

Author: W. Muschik
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 9783211824535
File Size: 19,84 MB
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This book puts emphasis on developing the basic ideas behind the different approaches to non-equilibrium thermodynamics and on applying them to solids. After a survey about different approaches an introduction to their common fundamentals is given in the first part. In the second part the mechanical behavior of special materials such as viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, viscoelastoplasticity, and thermoplasticity are discussed. The third part is devoted to extended thermodynamics. The basic ideas, phenomenological as well as microscopical, are reviewed and applied to thermo- and viscoelastic materials. Electromagnetic solids showing dielectric relaxation, such as ceramics, showing electromagneto-mechanical hysteresis and superconductivity are treated in the fourth part. In the last part stability with regard to constitutive equations is investigated. Especially stability of quasi-static processes and of elastic-plastic systems are discussed.

Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

Author: David Jou
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642976719
File Size: 34,87 MB
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Modern technology strives towards higher speed, higher power, and higher miniaturiza tion. In these conditions, the classical transport equations must be updated in order to incorporate memory, non-local, and non-linear effects. These effects have been studied by starting from microscopic models which are specific to particular systems and whose solution requires mathematical approximations and boundary conditions. The aim of extended irreversible thermodynamics is to complement such microscopic analyses with a macroscopic framework which could play, with respect to the generalized trans port equations incorporating the aforementioned effects, a role similar to the one played by classical thermodynamics with respect to the classical transport equations. Such a macroscopic framework is particularly useful for comparing the results obtained from various microscopic models, for placing some restrictions on the range of validity of different approximations, and for settling a discussion on some basic concepts that arise unavoidably in a formalism that crosses the frontiers of the local-equilibrium theory. Extended irreversible thermodynamics is not at all in conflict with the classical theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and rational thermodynamics but must be viewed as a relevant extension of the scope of these descriptions. For the student or the researcher, it may be stimulating to go beyond the classical theories and to enter a of new ideas, new applications, and new problems.

The Extended Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Author: Nettleton Richard Ellsworth
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 50,31 MB
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Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics With Application To Solids

Author: W. Muschik
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3709143217
File Size: 31,83 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book puts emphasis on developing the basic ideas behind the different approaches to non-equilibrium thermodynamics and on applying them to solids. After a survey about different approaches an introduction to their common fundamentals is given in the first part. In the second part the mechanical behavior of special materials such as viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, viscoelastoplasticity, and thermoplasticity are discussed. The third part is devoted to extended thermodynamics. The basic ideas, phenomenological as well as microscopical, are reviewed and applied to thermo- and viscoelastic materials. Electromagnetic solids showing dielectric relaxation, such as ceramics, showing electromagneto-mechanical hysteresis and superconductivity are treated in the fourth part. In the last part stability with regard to constitutive equations is investigated. Especially stability of quasi-static processes and of elastic-plastic systems are discussed.

Extended Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics From Principles To Applications In Nanosystems

Author: Hatim Machrafi
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351021923
File Size: 41,64 MB
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Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics provides powerful tools departing not from empirical or statistical considerations but from fundamental thermodynamic laws, proposing final solutions that are readily usable and recognizable for students, researchers and industry. The book deals with methods that allow combining easily the present theory with other fields of science, such as fluid and solid mechanics, heat and mass transfer processes, electricity and thermoelectricity, and so on. Not only are such combinations facilitated, but they are incorporated into the developments in such a way that they become part of the theory. This book aims at providing for a systematic presentation of Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in nanosystems with a high degree of applicability. Furthermore, the book deals with how physical properties of systems behave as a function of their size. Moreover, it provides for a systematic approach to understand the behavior of thermal, electrical, thermoelectric, photovoltaic and nanofluid properties in nanosystems. Experimental results are used to validate the theory, the comparison is analysed, justified and discussed, and the theory is then again used to understand better experimental observations. The new developments in this book, being recognizable in relation with familiar concepts, should make it appealing for academics and researchers to teach and apply and graduate students to use. The text in this book is intended to bring attention to how the theory can be applied to real-life applications in nanoscaled environments. Case studies, and applications of theories, are explored including thereby nanoporous systems, solar panels, nanomedicine drug permeation and properties of nanoporous scaffolds. Explores new generalized thermodynamic models Provides introductory context of Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics within classical thermodynamics, theoretical fundamentals and several applications in nanosystems Provides for a systematic approach to understand the behavior of thermal, electric, thermoelectric and viscous properties as a function of several parameters in nanosystems Includes reflections to encourage the reader to think further and put the information into context Examines future developments of new constitutive equations and theories and places them in the framework of real-life applications in the energetic and medical sectors, such as photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices, nanoporous media, drug delivery and scaffolds

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

Author: Yasar Demirel
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080479723
File Size: 11,44 MB
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The book begins with a brief review of equilibrium systems and transport and rate processes, then covers the following areas: theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics; dissipation function; entropy and exergy; analysis and case studies on using the second law of thermodynamics; economic impact of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory; analysis of transport and rate processes; membrane transport; dissipative structures and biological systems; and other thermodynamic approaches and extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics. · Summarizes new applications of thermodynamics as tools for design and optimisation · Covers second law and exergy analysis for sustainable development · Promotes understanding of the coupled phenomena of natural processes

Extended Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Author: Hatim Machrafi
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351021931
File Size: 67,65 MB
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Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics provides powerful tools departing not from empirical or statistical considerations but from fundamental thermodynamic laws, proposing final solutions that are readily usable and recognizable for students, researchers and industry. The book deals with methods that allow combining easily the present theory with other fields of science, such as fluid and solid mechanics, heat and mass transfer processes, electricity and thermoelectricity, and so on. Not only are such combinations facilitated, but they are incorporated into the developments in such a way that they become part of the theory. This book aims at providing for a systematic presentation of Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in nanosystems with a high degree of applicability. Furthermore, the book deals with how physical properties of systems behave as a function of their size. Moreover, it provides for a systematic approach to understand the behavior of thermal, electrical, thermoelectric, photovoltaic and nanofluid properties in nanosystems. Experimental results are used to validate the theory, the comparison is analysed, justified and discussed, and the theory is then again used to understand better experimental observations. The new developments in this book, being recognizable in relation with familiar concepts, should make it appealing for academics and researchers to teach and apply and graduate students to use. The text in this book is intended to bring attention to how the theory can be applied to real-life applications in nanoscaled environments. Case studies, and applications of theories, are explored including thereby nanoporous systems, solar panels, nanomedicine drug permeation and properties of nanoporous scaffolds. Explores new generalized thermodynamic models Provides introductory context of Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics within classical thermodynamics, theoretical fundamentals and several applications in nanosystems Provides for a systematic approach to understand the behavior of thermal, electric, thermoelectric and viscous properties as a function of several parameters in nanosystems Includes reflections to encourage the reader to think further and put the information into context Examines future developments of new constitutive equations and theories and places them in the framework of real-life applications in the energetic and medical sectors, such as photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices, nanoporous media, drug delivery and scaffolds

Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

Author: David Jou
Editor:
ISBN: 9783642974311
File Size: 35,52 MB
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This is the first comprehensive monograph on a new thermodynamic theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast with the classical approach, the local equilibrium hypothesis is abandoned. The basic variables describing the system are no longer the equilibrium conserved variables, but the latter are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities taking the form of the flux of heat, the viscous pressure tensor, the flux of matter, the flux of electric current, etc. The statements behind extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications such as hyperbolic heat conduction, rheological models, waves in fluids, generalized hydrodynamics, phase diagrams of solutions under shear, non-Fickian diffusion, electrical systems, and a relativistic formulation including some cosmological applications. The book also contains a wide discussion of the foundations and the scope of the most current theories of non-equilibrium thermodynamics (classical irreversible thermodynamics and rational thermodynamics).

Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

Author: D. Jou
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642565654
File Size: 21,16 MB
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Covers a wide spectrum of applications and contains a wide discussion of the foundations and the scope of the most current theories of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The new edition reflects new developments and contains a new chapter on the interplay between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics.

Aspects Of Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Author: Wolfgang Muschik
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810200879
File Size: 29,33 MB
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In six lectures aspects of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems as well as continuum theoretical concepts are represented. Starting out with survey and introduction, state spaces are defined, the existence of internal energy is investigated, and Clausius inequality including negative absolute temperature is derived by diagram technique. Non-equilibrium contact quantities, such as contact temperature ? the dynamic analogue of thermostatic temperature ? and chemical potentials are phenomenologically defined and quantumstatistically founded. Using Clausius inequality the existence of non-negative entropy production is proved which allows to formulate a dissipation inequality in continuum thermodynamics. The transition between thermodynamics of discrete systems and continuum thermodynamics with respect to contact quantities is considered. Different possibilities of exploiting the dissipation inequality for getting constraints for constitutive equations are discussed. Finally hyperbolic heat conduction in non-extended thermodynamics is treated.

Modern Thermodynamics

Author: Jitao Wang
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642113494
File Size: 78,61 MB
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"Modern Thermodynamics- Based on the Extended Carnot Theorem" provides comprehensive definitions and mathematical expressions of both classical and modern thermodynamics. The goal is to develop the fundamental theory on an extended Carnot theorem without incorporating any extraneous assumptions. In particular, it offers a fundamental thermodynamic and calculational methodology for the synthesis of low-pressure diamonds. It also discusses many "abnormal phenomena", such as spiral reactions, cyclic reactions, chemical oscillations, low-pressure carat-size diamond growth, biological systems, and more. The book is intended for chemists and physicists working in thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, phase diagrams, biochemistry and complex systems, as well as graduate students in these fields. Jitao Wang is a professor emeritus at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

Author: Yasar Demirel
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080551364
File Size: 56,68 MB
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Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and lead to instabilities, fluctuations, and evolutionary systems. This book explores the unifying role of thermodynamics in natural phenomena. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Second Edition analyzes the transport processes of energy, mass, and momentum transfer processes, as well as chemical reactions. It considers various processes occurring simultaneously, and provides students with more realistic analysis and modeling by accounting possible interactions between them. This second edition updates and expands on the first edition by focusing on the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy, and entropy together with the Gibbs equation for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. Every chapter contains examples and practical problems to be solved. This book will be effective in senior and graduate education in chemical, mechanical, systems, biomedical, tissue, biological, and biological systems engineering, as well as physical, biophysical, biological, chemical, and biochemical sciences. Will help readers in understanding and modelling some of the coupled and complex systems, such as coupled transport and chemical reaction cycles in biological systems Presents a unified approach for interacting processes - combines analysis of transport and rate processes Introduces the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its use in simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions of physical, chemical, and biological systems A useful text for students taking advanced thermodynamics courses

Rational Extended Thermodynamics

Author: Ingo Mueller
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461222109
File Size: 32,69 MB
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Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and finite speeds of propaga tion. Several tenets of irreversible thermodynamics had to be changed in subtle ways to make extended thermodynamics work. Thus, the entropy is allowed to depend on nonequilibrium vari ables, the entropy flux is a general constitutive quantity, and the equations for stress and heat flux contain inertial terms. New insight is therefore provided into the principle of material frame indifference. With these modifications an elegant formal structure can be set up in which, just as in classical thermostatics, all restrictive conditions--derived from the entropy principle-take the form of integrability conditions.

Thermodynamics Of Fluids Under Flow

Author: D. Jou
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662044145
File Size: 45,39 MB
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Based on the authors’ successful theory for extended irreversible thermodynamics, the book analyzes the thermodynamic aspects of several phenomena induced by the flow in fluid systems.

Aspects Of Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Author: W Muschik
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 981452025X
File Size: 68,41 MB
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In six lectures aspects of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems as well as continuum theoretical concepts are represented. Starting out with survey and introduction, state spaces are defined, the existence of internal energy is investigated, and Clausius inequality including negative absolute temperature is derived by diagram technique. Non-equilibrium contact quantities, such as contact temperature — the dynamic analogue of thermostatic temperature — and chemical potentials are phenomenologically defined and quantumstatistically founded. Using Clausius inequality the existence of non-negative entropy production is proved which allows to formulate a dissipation inequality in continuum thermodynamics. The transition between thermodynamics of discrete systems and continuum thermodynamics with respect to contact quantities is considered. Different possibilities of exploiting the dissipation inequality for getting constraints for constitutive equations are discussed. Finally hyperbolic heat conduction in non-extended thermodynamics is treated. Contents:IntroductionFirst LawSecond LawNon-Equilibrium Contact Quantities and their Quantum-Statistical FoundationExistence of Non-Negative Entropy ProductionContinuum Thermodynamics Readership: Physicists, physico-chemists, theoretical engineers and thermodynamicists. Keywords:Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics;Second Law;Continuum Thermodynamics;Discrete Systems;Contact Temperature;Clausius Inequality;Open Thermal Systems;Entropy Inequality;Constitutive Equations;Material Theory

Non Equilibrium Statistical Thermodynamics Applied To Fluid Dynamics And Laser Physics

Author: Xavier De Hemptinne
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814505714
File Size: 73,98 MB
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This book stresses the role of uncorrelated exchange of properties between macroscopic systems and their surroundings as the only source of dynamic irreversibility. To that end, fundamentals of statistical thermodynamics extended to the non-equilibrium are worked out carefully. The principles are then applied to selected problems in classical fluid dynamics. Transport coefficients are first derived from basic laws. This is followed by a full discussion of transitions to dissipative structures in selected systems far removed from equilibrium (Bénard and Taylor vortices, calculation of the critical Reynolds number for transition to turbulence in Poiseuille flow). The final part focuses on interaction of matter with light. Fundamentals are extended towards quantum-mechanical systems. Applied to coherent radiation and its interaction with matter, the proposed thermodynamic treatment introduces an original discussion into the quantum nature of micro-physics.The book questions and reconsiders a deeply rooted paradigm in macroscopic dynamics concerning the cause of irreversibility. The new proposal is illustrated by application to a couple of well documented non-equilibrium domains, namely fluid dynamics and laser physics.

Extended Thermodynamics Systems

Author: Stanislaw Sieniutycz
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780844816937
File Size: 80,86 MB
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This multiauthored volume sketches the applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics to complex systems. These are characterized by an involved form of the Gibbs equation and include systems such as solutions of macromolecules, magnetic hysteresis bodies, viscoelastic fluids, polarizable media, fluids under stresses and in the presence of essential nonstationarities, and high temperature gradients. As a rule, the so- called internal variables and/or dissipative fluxes are essential in the thermodynamic description of such systems.

Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics For Engineers

Author:
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814329916
File Size: 20,87 MB
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The book describes in a simple and practical way what non-equilibrium thermodynamics is and how it can add to engineering fields. It explains how to describe proper equations of transport, more precise than used so far, and how to use them to understand the waste of energy resources in central unit processes in the industry. It introduces the entropy balance as an additional equation to use, to create consistent thermodynamic models, and a systematic method for minimizing energy losses that are connected with transport of heat, mass, charge, momentum and chemical reactions. Readership: Senior undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.

Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics For Engineers Second Edition

Author: Signe Kjelstrup
Editor: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9813200324
File Size: 76,82 MB
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Kjelstrup, Bedeaux, Johannessen, and Gross describe what non-equilibrium thermodynamics is in a simple and practical way and how it can add to engineering design. They explain how to describe proper equations of transport that are more precise than those used so far, and how to use them to understand the waste of energy resources in central process units in the industry. The authors introduce the entropy balance as an additional equation to use in engineering; to create consistent thermodynamic models, and to systematically minimize energy losses that are connected with the transport of heat, mass, charge and momentum.Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics for Engineers teaches the essence of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications at a level comprehensible to engineering students, practitioner engineers, and scientists working on industrial problems. The book may be used as a textbook in basic engineering curricula or graduate courses.

Statistical Mechanics And Dynamics Of Driven And Active Systems

Author: Katherine Klymko
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 11,27 MB
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Systems driven out of equilibrium display a rich variety of patterns and surprising response behaviors. There exist different types of non-equilibrium processes, for instance a system that has been prepared in a non-Boltzmann initial state and is relaxing back to equilibrium, or a system that adopts a non-equilibrium steady state distribution when it is driven by an external field. In these different cases, the main characteristic that distinguishes these systems as non-equilibrium is that they are constantly dissipating heat, or likewise producing entropy. This entropy production is often the starting point for developing a systematic theory to describe such non-equilibrium processes. Entropy production can be related to the irreversible processes occurring within a system. Particularly strong statements can be made about non-equilibrium systems when a local equilibrium assumption can be made, that is, when smaller subsets of a large system can be considered to be in equilibrium. This turns out to be justified for a wide variety of systems under different conditions. When this holds, the entropy production can be written as a generalized thermodynamic force (often the gradient of some intensive variable of the system) multiplied by a flux. When the thermodynamic force is small, the fluxes can be written as linear combinations of the thermodynamic forces, connected by response coefficients–this is known as linear irreversible thermodynamics. The full extension of equilibrium thermodynamic concepts to dissipative processes beyond this linear regime, including the development of microscopic principles justifying irreversible thermodynamic theories (as equilibrium statistical mechanics justifies equilibrium thermodynamics), is still a work in progress. In this thesis, we work towards advancing the thermodynamic theory of non-equilibrium phenomena by studying models of driven-diffusive systems, growth processes, and active matter. We use developments from stochastic thermodynamics, large deviation theory, and irreversible thermodynamics to characterize the non-equilibrium phases and properties exhibited by these systems. We question to what extent equilibrium approximations are valid for predicting pattern formation in these systems and whether there exist general unifying features describing these non-equilibriums processes. In the process we develop trajectory sampling methods to investigate the statistics of dynamical order parameters distinguishing these phases. We show how the first and second laws of thermodynamics, including consistent expressions for entropy production, can be extended to active systems, where microscopic reversibility is broken at the level of individual particles. Additionally we derive fluctuation relations, exact analytical results for the fluctuations of entropy production in the form of equalities, for the entropy production in active systems. We also extend the Irving-Kirkwood procedure to active systems, deriving the balance laws of mass, momentum, and energy. Consequently we obtain expressions for the stress and couple stress tensors in the system as functions of the microscopic variables. This provides a foundation to extend the framework of irreversible thermodynamics to active systems.