General James Longstreet

Author: Jeffry D. Wert
Editor: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439127786
File Size: 19,15 MB
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General James Longstreet fought in nearly every campaign of the Civil War, from Manassas (the first battle of Bull Run) to Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chickamauga, Gettysburg, and was present at the surrender at Appomattox. Yet, he was largely held to blame for the Confederacy's defeat at Gettysburg. General James Longstreet sheds new light on the controversial commander and the man Robert E. Lee called “my old war horse.”

General James Longstreet At Antietam

Author: James Longstreet
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781522782230
File Size: 48,17 MB
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One of the most important Confederate generals of the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was arguably the best corps commander the Confederates have, and he played crucial roles at Antietam, Second Bull Run, Chickamauga, the Wilderness, and Fredericksburg. However, Longstreet had a controversial role at Gettysburg, when he was unable to roll up the Union Army of the Potomac's flank on Day 2 and Pickett's Charge failed on Day 3. Though Longstreet tried to talk Lee out of the attacks, they went forward, and Longstreet criticized Lee about them afterward, making him reviled among other Confederates. In turn, they tried to blame him for the loss at Gettysburg. Just a few years before his death, Longstreet finally published his crucial memoirs, From Manassas to Appomattox, which talked about his experiences and analysis of the decisions made during the war. Longstreet wrote it to respond to his own critics and because Lee himself didn't write any. Regardless, they are one of the most important post-war writings of any general on either side of the Civil War.

A Glorious Army

Author: Jeffry D. Wert
Editor: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1416593357
File Size: 59,13 MB
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From the time Robert E. Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia on June 1, 1862, until the Battle of Gettysburg thirteen months later, the Confederate army compiled a record of military achievement almost unparalleled in our nation’s history. How it happened—the relative contributions of Lee, his top command, opposing Union generals, and of course the rebel army itself—is the subject of Civil War historian Jeffry D. Wert’s fascinating and riveting new history. In the year following Lee’s appointment, his army won four major battles or campaigns and fought Union forces to a draw at the bloody Battle of Antietam. Washington itself was threatened, as a succession of Union commanders failed to stop Lee’s offensive. Until Gettysburg, it looked as if Lee might force the Union to negotiate a peace rather than risk surrendering the capital or even losing the war. Lee’s victories fired southern ambition and emboldened Confederate soldiers everywhere. Wert shows how the same audacity and aggression that fueled these victories proved disastrous at Gettysburg. But, as Wert explains, Lee had little choice: outnumbered by an opponent with superior resources, he had to take the fight to the enemy in order to win. For a year his superior generalship prevailed against his opponents, but eventually what Lee’s trusted lieutenant General James Longstreet called “headlong combativeness” caused Lee to miscalculate. When an equally combative Union general—Ulysses S. Grant—took command of northern forces in 1864, Lee was defeated. A Glorious Army draws on the latest scholarship, including letters and diaries, to provide a brilliant analysis of Lee’s triumphs. It offers fresh assessments of Lee; his top commanders Longstreet, Jackson, and Stuart; and a shrewd battle strategy that still offers lessons to military commanders today. A Glorious Army is a dramatic account of major battles from Seven Days to Gettysburg that is as gripping as it is convincing, a must-read for anyone interested in the Civil War.

General James Longstreet At Chickamauga

Author: James Longstreet
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781522779803
File Size: 26,73 MB
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One of the most important Confederate generals of the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was arguably the best corps commander the Confederates have, and he played crucial roles at Antietam, Second Bull Run, Chickamauga, the Wilderness, and Fredericksburg. However, Longstreet had a controversial role at Gettysburg, when he was unable to roll up the Union Army of the Potomac's flank on Day 2 and Pickett's Charge failed on Day 3. Though Longstreet tried to talk Lee out of the attacks, they went forward, and Longstreet criticized Lee about them afterward, making him reviled among other Confederates. In turn, they tried to blame him for the loss at Gettysburg. Just a few years before his death, Longstreet finally published his crucial memoirs, From Manassas to Appomattox, which talked about his experiences and analysis of the decisions made during the war. Longstreet wrote it to respond to his own critics and because Lee himself didn't write any. Regardless, they are one of the most important post-war writings of any general on either side of the Civil War.

General James Longstreet At Gettysburg

Author: James Longstreet
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781522780014
File Size: 29,37 MB
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One of the most important Confederate generals of the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was arguably the best corps commander the Confederates have, and he played crucial roles at Antietam, Second Bull Run, Chickamauga, the Wilderness, and Fredericksburg. However, Longstreet had a controversial role at Gettysburg, when he was unable to roll up the Union Army of the Potomac's flank on Day 2 and Pickett's Charge failed on Day 3. Though Longstreet tried to talk Lee out of the attacks, they went forward, and Longstreet criticized Lee about them afterward, making him reviled among other Confederates. In turn, they tried to blame him for the loss at Gettysburg. Just a few years before his death, Longstreet finally published his crucial memoirs, From Manassas to Appomattox, which talked about his experiences and analysis of the decisions made during the war. Longstreet wrote it to respond to his own critics and because Lee himself didn't write any. Regardless, they are one of the most important post-war writings of any general on either side of the Civil War.

General James Longstreet At Fredericksburg

Author: James Longstreet
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781522783619
File Size: 73,70 MB
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One of the most important Confederate generals of the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was arguably the best corps commander the Confederates have, and he played crucial roles at Antietam, Second Bull Run, Chickamauga, the Wilderness, and Fredericksburg. However, Longstreet had a controversial role at Gettysburg, when he was unable to roll up the Union Army of the Potomac's flank on Day 2 and Pickett's Charge failed on Day 3. Though Longstreet tried to talk Lee out of the attacks, they went forward, and Longstreet criticized Lee about them afterward, making him reviled among other Confederates. In turn, they tried to blame him for the loss at Gettysburg. Just a few years before his death, Longstreet finally published his crucial memoirs, From Manassas to Appomattox, which talked about his experiences and analysis of the decisions made during the war. Longstreet wrote it to respond to his own critics and because Lee himself didn't write any. Regardless, they are one of the most important post-war writings of any general on either side of the Civil War.

General James Longstreet At The Seven Days Battles

Author: James Longstreet
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781522782865
File Size: 36,52 MB
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One of the most important Confederate generals of the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was arguably the best corps commander the Confederates have, and he played crucial roles at Antietam, Second Bull Run, Chickamauga, the Wilderness, and Fredericksburg. However, Longstreet had a controversial role at Gettysburg, when he was unable to roll up the Union Army of the Potomac's flank on Day 2 and Pickett's Charge failed on Day 3. Though Longstreet tried to talk Lee out of the attacks, they went forward, and Longstreet criticized Lee about them afterward, making him reviled among other Confederates. In turn, they tried to blame him for the loss at Gettysburg. Just a few years before his death, Longstreet finally published his crucial memoirs, From Manassas to Appomattox, which talked about his experiences and analysis of the decisions made during the war. Longstreet wrote it to respond to his own critics and because Lee himself didn't write any. Regardless, they are one of the most important post-war writings of any general on either side of the Civil War.

A Leadership Analysis Lieutenant General James Longstreet During The American Civil War

Author: Major Hampton E. Hite
Editor: Pickle Partners Publishing
ISBN: 178625218X
File Size: 39,91 MB
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This thesis is a chronological analysis of Longstreet during the thirteen major campaigns in which he participated: First Manassas, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, the Seven Days, Second Manassas, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Suffolk, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, Knoxville, the Wilderness, and Petersburg. The primary thesis question is: Was Longstreet’s leadership during the war satisfactory when analyzed in the context of the nine leadership competencies of FM 22-100, Military Leadership? The nine leadership competencies are the result of a 1976 study group consisting of army leaders ranking from Corporal to General. The nine competencies are: supervision, soldier/team development, technical and tactical proficiency, use of available systems, professional ethics, planning, decision making, teaching and counseling, and communications. After a discussion of each campaign an analysis of Longstreet’s leadership is conducted using the leadership competencies as analytical criteria. A leadership profile of Longstreet evolves as he gains experience during the war and is assigned to positions of increased responsibility. The conclusion of this thesis is that Longstreet’s leadership was satisfactory during the war when analyzed in the context of the nine leadership competencies. Over the course of the thirteen campaigns mentioned above, Longstreet’s leadership was satisfactory or better in a clear majority of the nine leadership competencies. The purpose of this study is to add to the Longstreet debate in a unique way. Longstreet is analyzed using nine doctrinally accepted leadership competencies to provide a constant measurement tool throughout the thesis. This should eliminate some of the emotion from the Longstreet debate.

The Men Who Ordered Pickett S Charge

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Editor: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781493590872
File Size: 41,78 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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*Weaves the lives and careers of all 4 generals into one entertaining and educational narrative. *Includes maps of important battles like Antietam and Gettysburg. *Includes pictures of the generals and important people, places, and events in their lives. *Includes descriptions of Pickett's Charge written by George Pickett, James Longstreet, and Porter Alexander. *Includes a Bibliography for further reading. Despite the fact that the Civil War began over 150 years ago, it remains one of the most widely discussed topics in America today, with Americans arguing over its causes, reenacting its famous battles, and debating which general was better than others. Americans continue to be fascinated by the Civil War icons who made the difference between victory and defeat in the war's great battles. Of all those battles, the most famous and controversial is Gettysburg, and debate still rages over the climactic attack on the final day, when Army of Northern Virginia commander Robert E. Lee decided over the protests of his principal subordinate James Longstreet to make an assault on the center of the Union line, now known as Pickett's Charge. Lee is remembered today for constantly defeating the Union's Army of the Potomac in the Eastern theater from 1862-1865, considerably frustrating Lincoln and his generals. His leadership of his army led to him being deified after the war by some of his former subordinates, especially Virginians, and he came to personify the Lost Cause's ideal Southern soldier. But of all the battles Lee fought in, he was most criticized for Gettysburg, particularly his order of Pickett's Charge on the third and final day of the war. One of the most important, and controversial, Confederate generals during the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was Lee's principal subordinate for most of the war, ably managing a corps in the Army of Northern Virginia and being instrumental in Confederate victories at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chickamauga. Longstreet was also effective at Antietam and the Battle of the Wilderness, where he was nearly killed by a shot through the neck. However, it was his performance at Gettysburg and arguments with other Southern generals after the Civil War that tarnished his image. Before July 3, 1863, George Pickett was best known among his comrades for finishing last in his class at West Point, being a jocular but courageous soldier, and his carefully perfumed locks. As part of West Point's most famous Class of 1846, Pickett was classmates with men like Stonewall Jackson and George McClellan, but today he is remembered almost solely for the charge that has taken his name. The same could be said of Porter Alexander, who was in charge of the 1st Corps' guns at Gettysburg until Lee tasked him with conducting the artillery bombardment before Pickett's Charge. What resulted was the largest sustained bombardment of the Civil War, with over 150 Confederate cannons across the line firing incessantly at the Union line for nearly 2 hours. Alexander would later heavily criticize Lee for ordering the charge. The Men Who Ordered Pickett's Charge profiles the lives, careers, and legacies of the four generals who commanded the famous attack, looking at their entire Civil War records, their relationships with each other, and more. Along with maps of battles and pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about Lee, Longstreet, Pickett and Porter Alexander like you never have before.

General James Longstreet At Second Bull Run

Author: James Longstreet
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781522782834
File Size: 15,59 MB
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One of the most important Confederate generals of the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was arguably the best corps commander the Confederates have, and he played crucial roles at Antietam, Second Bull Run, Chickamauga, the Wilderness, and Fredericksburg. However, Longstreet had a controversial role at Gettysburg, when he was unable to roll up the Union Army of the Potomac's flank on Day 2 and Pickett's Charge failed on Day 3. Though Longstreet tried to talk Lee out of the attacks, they went forward, and Longstreet criticized Lee about them afterward, making him reviled among other Confederates. In turn, they tried to blame him for the loss at Gettysburg. Just a few years before his death, Longstreet finally published his crucial memoirs, From Manassas to Appomattox, which talked about his experiences and analysis of the decisions made during the war. Longstreet wrote it to respond to his own critics and because Lee himself didn't write any. Regardless, they are one of the most important post-war writings of any general on either side of the Civil War.

Mark Twain Quarterly

Author:
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 59,90 MB
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Lee S Old War Horse

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781981894093
File Size: 60,55 MB
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*Includes pictures of Longstreet and other important Civil War generals, as well as maps of battles he fought in. *Discusses the controversies surrounding Longstreet's performance at Gettysburg *Analyzes Longstreet's legacy and the post-war debates among Longstreet and other Confederate generals. *Includes a Bibliography for further reading. One of the most important, and controversial, Confederate generals during the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was Lee's principal subordinate for most of the war, ably managing a corps in the Army of Northern Virginia and being instrumental in Confederate victories at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chickamauga. Longstreet was also effective at Antietam and the Battle of the Wilderness, where he was nearly killed by a shot through the neck. Had Longstreet died on the field in early May 1864, he would almost certainly be considered one of the South's biggest heroes. However, it was his performance at Gettysburg and arguments with other Southern generals after the Civil War that tarnished his image. After the South lost the war and Gettysburg came to be viewed as one of its biggest turning points, former Confederate generals looked to that battle to find scapegoats to blame for losing the war. Longstreet was charged with being slow to attack on the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg, allowing the Union to man Little Round Top. He also resisted Lee's order for Pickett's Charge the next day, making his criticisms clear both that day and after the war through his writings. The fact that he served in Republican administrations after the Civil War rubbed his former comrades the wrong way, and the Georgian Longstreet's criticism of Lee infuriated the Virginian Lost Cause advocates who idolized Lee. Near the end of his life, Longstreet authored From Manassas to Appomattox, a Civil War memoirs that looked to rebut his critics. Longstreet didn't avoid his critics, facing them head on by fending off criticisms of his record for the most part, usually including letters written by other officers to his defense. Longstreet also didn't pull punches, which he does at times quite poignantly on Lee's mishaps, most notably of course at Gettysburg. In other instances, he defends himself by criticizing others. When Fitz Lee notes that R.E. Lee called Longstreet the hardest man to move in the Army (a comment that can't be confirmed or refuted), he comes to his own defense in part by criticizing Stonewall Jackson during the Seven Days campaign. Hindsight is 20/20, and Longstreet's arguments in the conduct of certain campaigns certainly benefited from the passing of 30 years. At a number of places, Longstreet believes that if his suggestions were followed, the results could have destroyed Union armies or won the War. Nobody will ever be sure if he's right or wrong on these matters, though historians typically consider those kinds of statements bluster. Lee's Old Warhorse: The Life and Career of General James Longstreet looks at the life and career of one of the South's most important and controversial fighters, explaining his biggest accomplishments and discussing the biggest controversies. Along with pictures of Longstreet and other important people, places and events in his life, you will learn about Lee's Old War Horse like you never have before, in no time at all.

From Antietam To Fort Fisher

Author: Edward King Wightman
Editor: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press
ISBN:
File Size: 50,93 MB
Format: PDF
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Edward King Wightman, who went to war in September 1862, sent home graphic accounts of war's chaos, violence, and suffering. In this volume, the writings of both Edward and his father have been fully edited, annotated, and illustrated by photographs and engravings of the persons and places that touched their lives during the civil war.

The Men Who Ordered Pickett S Charge

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781985725126
File Size: 23,93 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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*Weaves the lives and careers of all 4 generals into one entertaining and educational narrative. *Includes maps of important battles like Antietam and Gettysburg. *Includes pictures of the generals and important people, places, and events in their lives. *Includes descriptions of Pickett's Charge written by George Pickett, James Longstreet, and Porter Alexander. *Includes a Bibliography for further reading. Despite the fact that the Civil War began over 150 years ago, it remains one of the most widely discussed topics in America today, with Americans arguing over its causes, reenacting its famous battles, and debating which general was better than others. Americans continue to be fascinated by the Civil War icons who made the difference between victory and defeat in the war's great battles. Of all those battles, the most famous and controversial is Gettysburg, and debate still rages over the climactic attack on the final day, when Army of Northern Virginia commander Robert E. Lee decided over the protests of his principal subordinate James Longstreet to make an assault on the center of the Union line, now known as Pickett's Charge. Lee is remembered today for constantly defeating the Union's Army of the Potomac in the Eastern theater from 1862-1865, considerably frustrating Lincoln and his generals. His leadership of his army led to him being deified after the war by some of his former subordinates, especially Virginians, and he came to personify the Lost Cause's ideal Southern soldier. But of all the battles Lee fought in, he was most criticized for Gettysburg, particularly his order of Pickett's Charge on the third and final day of the war. One of the most important, and controversial, Confederate generals during the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was Lee's principal subordinate for most of the war, ably managing a corps in the Army of Northern Virginia and being instrumental in Confederate victories at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chickamauga. Longstreet was also effective at Antietam and the Battle of the Wilderness, where he was nearly killed by a shot through the neck. However, it was his performance at Gettysburg and arguments with other Southern generals after the Civil War that tarnished his image. Before July 3, 1863, George Pickett was best known among his comrades for finishing last in his class at West Point, being a jocular but courageous soldier, and his carefully perfumed locks. As part of West Point's most famous Class of 1846, Pickett was classmates with men like Stonewall Jackson and George McClellan, but today he is remembered almost solely for the charge that has taken his name. The same could be said of Porter Alexander, who was in charge of the 1st Corps' guns at Gettysburg until Lee tasked him with conducting the artillery bombardment before Pickett's Charge. What resulted was the largest sustained bombardment of the Civil War, with over 150 Confederate cannons across the line firing incessantly at the Union line for nearly 2 hours. Alexander would later heavily criticize Lee for ordering the charge. The Men Who Ordered Pickett's Charge profiles the lives, careers, and legacies of the four generals who commanded the famous attack, looking at their entire Civil War records, their relationships with each other, and more. Along with maps of battles and pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about Lee, Longstreet, Pickett and Porter Alexander like you never have before.

Leaders Of The Army Of Northern Virginia

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781981893492
File Size: 55,56 MB
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*Includes pictures of each general, and important people, places, and events in their lives. *Includes an original introduction for each general. *Includes a bibliography for each general. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, and the men who led it, continue to be among the most popular topics of Civil War history, as historians analyze their battles and the generals' decisions, and how to attribute blame and success to the Army's leaders. With the exception of George Washington, perhaps the most famous general in American history is Robert E. Lee (January 19, 1807 - October 12, 1870), despite the fact he led the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia against the Union in the Civil War. As the son of U.S. Revolutionary War hero Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee III, and a relative of Martha Custis Washington, Lee was imbued with a strong sense of honor and duty from the beginning. And as a top graduate of West Point, Lee had distinguished himself so well before the Civil War that President Lincoln asked him to command the entire Union Army. Lee famously declined, serving his home state of Virginia instead after it seceded. Thomas Jonathan Jackson is one of the most famous generals of the Civil War, but many of the people he continues to fascinate probably don't remember his whole name. That's because Jackson earned his famous "Stonewall" moniker at the First Battle of Manassas or Bull Run, when Brigadier-General Bee told his brigade to rally behind Jackson, whose men were standing like a stone wall. Ironically, it's still unclear whether that was a compliment for standing strong or an insult for not moving his brigade, but the nickname stuck for the brigade and the general itself. One of the most important, and controversial, Confederate generals during the Civil War was Lieutenant General James Longstreet, the man Robert E. Lee called his "old war horse." Longstreet was Lee's principal subordinate for most of the war, ably managing a corps in the Army of Northern Virginia and being instrumental in Confederate victories at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chickamauga. Longstreet was also effective at Antietam and the Battle of the Wilderness, where he was nearly killed by a shot through the neck. Had Longstreet died on the field in early May 1864, he would almost certainly be considered one of the South's biggest heroes. However, it was his performance at Gettysburg and arguments with other Southern generals after the Civil War that tarnished his image. Alongside Lee, no one epitomized the chivalry and heroism celebrated by the Lost Cause more than JEB Stuart (1833-1864), the most famous cavalry officer of the Civil War. Stuart was equal parts great and grandiose, leading the cavalry for the Confederacy in Lee's Army of Northern Virginia until his death at the Battle of Yellow Tavern in May 1864. Stuart was a throwback to the past, colorfully dressing with capes, sashes, and an ostrich plumed hat, while sporting cologne and a heavy beard. But he was also brilliant in conducting reconnaissance, and he proved capable of leading both cavalry and infantry at battles like Chancellorsville. As the eyes and ears of Robert E. Lee's army, none were better, despite the fact that he was only in his late 20s and early 30s during the Civil War, far younger than most men of senior rank. The Leaders of the Army of Northern Virginia comprehensively cover their lives, careers, and legacies of all 4 of its best known and most important leaders. Along with pictures, maps of battles, and bibliographies, you will learn about Lee, Jackson, Longstreet and Stuart like you never have before.

Battle Of Antietam

Author: Ted Ballard
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 57,15 MB
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This staff ride guide examines the Maryland Campaign and Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day in American history. On 17 September 1862, the Army of the Potomac met the Army of Northern Virginia on the rolling farmlands around Sharpsburg, Maryland. While General Lee sought to bring the war to the North and "liberate" Maryland, General McClellan, having gained important intelligence, would endeavor to defeat Lee and reverse the momentum of several Union losses. Though neither the Union nor the Confederate side gained the decisive victory both desired, the battle provides many lessons in command and control, communications, intelligence, technology versus tactics, and the "fog of war."

General James Pete Longstreet Lee S Old War Horse

Author: Wilbur D. Thomas
Editor: McClain Printing Company
ISBN:
File Size: 74,29 MB
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The Civil War Turning Points In The East

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781985029460
File Size: 34,70 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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*Includes pictures of important people, places, and events. *Includes maps of the battles. *Comprehensively covers the entire Maryland Campaign of 1862 and the Pennsylvania campaign of 1863, as well as the aftermath and legacies of the battles. *Analyzes the generalship of the battles' most important leaders, including Lee, McClellan, Longstreet, Meade, and more. *Includes bibliographies for further reading. "The fact of the matter is that George G. Meade, unexpectedly and against all odds, thoroughly outgeneraled Robert E. Lee at Gettysburg." - Stephen Sears "Those in whose judgment I rely tell me that I fought the battle splendidly and that it was a masterpiece of art. ... I feel I have done all that can be asked in twice saving the country. ... I feel some little pride in having, with a beaten & demoralized army, defeated Lee so utterly." - George McClellan The bloodiest day in American history took place on the 75th anniversary of the signing of the Constitution. On September 17, 1862, Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia fought George McClellan's Union Army of the Potomac outside Sharpsburg along Antietam Creek. That day, nearly 25,000 would become casualties, and Lee's army would barely survive fighting the much bigger Northern army. Although the battle was tactically a draw, it resulted in forcing Lee's army out of Maryland and back into Virginia, making it a strategic victory for the North and an opportune time for President Abraham Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all slaves in the rebellious states. Less than a year later, the most famous battle of the Civil War took place outside of the small town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, which happened to be a transportation hub, serving as the center of a wheel with several roads leading out to other Pennsylvanian towns. From July 1-3, Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia tried everything in its power to decisively defeat George Meade's Union Army of the Potomac, unleashing ferocious assaults that inflicted nearly 50,000 casualties in all. Day 1 of the battle would have been one of the 25 biggest battles of the Civil War itself, and it ended with a tactical Confederate victory. But over the next two days, Lee would try and fail to dislodge the Union army with attacks on both of its flanks during the second day and Pickett's Charge on the third and final day. Meade's stout defense held, barely, repulsing each attempted assault, handing the Union a desperately needed victory that ended up being one of the Civil War's turning points. After the South had lost the war, the importance of Antietam and Gettysburg was apparent to everyone, making the battles all the more important in the years after it had been fought. While former Confederate generals cast about for scapegoats, with various officers pointing fingers at Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet, and James Stuart, historians and avid Civil War fans became obsessed with studying and analyzing all the command decisions and army movements during the campaigns. Despite the saturation of coverage, millions of Americans continue visiting the two battlefields. The Civil War Turning Points in the East comprehensively covers the two crucial campaigns, analyzing Lee's invasion strategies, the Union's response, and the generalship of the most important commanders of the battles. Along with bibliographies, maps of the battle, and pictures of important people and places, you will learn about the Antietam and Gettysburg like you never have before.